Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2016
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation and Principles of Consolidation
The Company’s consolidated financial statements have been prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”). The Company’s consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and the accounts of the Company’s subsidiaries: National and its subsidiaries, Innmune Limited, Coronado SO, Cyprium Therapeutics, Inc., Escala, Journey, CB Securities Corporation, Avenue, Checkpoint, Mustang, Caelum, Cellvation and Helocyte. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated.
The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company’s subsidiaries. For consolidated entities where the Company owns less than 100% of the subsidiary, the Company records net loss attributable to non-controlling interests in its consolidated statements of operations equal to the percentage of the economic or ownership interest retained in such entities by the respective non-controlling parties. The Company also consolidates subsidiaries in which it owns less than 50% of the subsidiary but maintains voting control.
The National assets acquired and liabilities assumed and revenues and expenses are reported on a one quarter lag. Therefore, the National assets acquired and liabilities assumed included in these consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2016 are actually the assets acquired and liabilities assumed as of September 30, 2016 and the revenues and expenses included in these consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2016 are actually the revenues and expenses for the period from September 10, 2016 through September 30, 2016.
Use of Estimates
The Company’s consolidated financial statements include certain amounts that are based on management’s best estimates and judgments. The Company’s significant estimates include, but are not limited to, useful lives assigned to long-lived assets, fair value of stock options and warrants, stock-based compensation, common stock issued to acquire licenses, investments, accrued expenses, provisions for income taxes and contingencies. Due to the uncertainty inherent in such estimates, actual results may differ from these estimates.
Fair Value Measurement
The Company follows accounting guidance on fair value measurements for financial assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis. Under the accounting guidance, fair value is defined as an exit price, representing the amount that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. As such, fair value is a market-based measurement that should be determined based on assumptions that market participants would use in pricing an asset or a liability.
The accounting guidance requires fair value measurements be classified and disclosed in one of the following three categories:
The fair value hierarchy also requires an entity to maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs when measuring fair value. Assets and liabilities measured at fair value are classified in their entirety based on the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement. The Company’s assessment of the significance of a particular input to the fair value measurement in its entirety requires management to make judgments and consider factors specific to the asset or liability.
Certain of the Company’s financial instruments are not measured at fair value on a recurring basis, but are recorded at amounts that approximate their fair value due to their liquid or short-term nature, such as accounts payable, accrued expenses and other current liabilities. The carrying value of the amount owed to Ovamed GmbH (“Ovamed”) upon the acquisition of certain manufacturing rights has been recorded at its net present value, which approximates its fair value, due to the short-term nature of the liability. The amounts due to Ovamed are included in current liabilities at December 31, 2016 and 2015 in the Consolidated Balance Sheets (see Note 12). Debt carried at cost approximates fair value.
Consistent with the increase in Journey’s operations as of April 1, 2016 and the investment in National as of September 9, 2016, the Company now operates in three operating and reportable segments, Dermatology Product Sales, Pharmaceutical and Biotechnology Product Development and National. Intercompany revenue at National related to the Mustang raise of $1.3 million was eliminated. The Company evaluates the performance of each segment based on operating profit or loss. There is no inter-segment allocation of interest expense and income taxes.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers highly liquid investments with a maturity of three months or less when purchased to be cash equivalents. Cash and cash equivalents at December 31, 2016 and at December 31, 2015 consisted of cash, money market funds and certificates of deposit in institutions in the United States. Balances at certain institutions have exceeded Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation insured limits and U.S. government agency securities.
Property and Equipment
Office equipment is recorded at cost and depreciated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful life of each asset. Leasehold improvements are amortized over the shorter of the estimated useful lives or the term of the respective leases.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
The Company reviews long-lived assets, including property and equipment, for impairment whenever events or changes in business circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the assets may not be fully recoverable. Factors that the Company considers in deciding when to perform an impairment review include significant underperformance of the business in relation to expectations, significant negative industry or economic trends, and significant changes or planned changes in the use of the assets. If an impairment review is performed to evaluate a long-lived asset for recoverability, the Company compares forecasts of undiscounted cash flows expected to result from the use and eventual disposition of the long-lived asset to its carrying value. An impairment loss would be recognized when estimated undiscounted future cash flows expected to result from the use of an asset are less than its carrying amount. The impairment loss would be based on the excess of the carrying value of the impaired asset over its fair value, determined based on discounted cash flows. During the year ended December 31, 2014, in connection to the abandonment of its lease in Woburn, MA, the Company recorded an impairment loss of $0.4 million related to the write-off of its construction in progress long-lived asset.
The Company records cash held in trust or pledged to secure certain debt obligations as restricted cash. As of December 31, 2016 and 2015, the Company has $15.9 million and $14.6 million, respectively of restricted cash collateralizing a note payable of $14.9 million and $14.0 million, respectively and a pledge to secure a letter of credit in connection with an office lease of $0.6 million in both 2016 and 2015.
Inventories comprise finished goods, which are valued at the lower of cost or market, on a first-in, first-out basis. The Company evaluates the carrying value of inventories on a regular basis, taking into account anticipated future sales compared with quantities on hand, and the remaining shelf life of goods on hand.
Accounts receivable consists of amounts due to the Company for product sales from JMC. The Company’s accounts receivable reflects discounts for estimated early payment and for product estimated returns. Accounts receivable are stated at amounts due from customers, net of an allowance for doubtful accounts. Accounts that are outstanding longer than the contractual payment terms are considered past due. The Company determines its allowance for doubtful accounts by considering a number of factors, including the length of time trade accounts receivable are past due and the customer’s current ability to pay its obligation to the Company. The Company writes off accounts receivable when they become uncollectible. Accounts receivable are net of allowance for doubtful accounts of nil and nil, at December 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015, respectively.
Investments at Fair Value
The Company elects the fair value option for its long-term investments at fair value (see Note 7). The decision to elect the fair value option, which is irrevocable once elected, is determined on an instrument by instrument basis and applied to an entire instrument. The net gains or losses, if any, on an investment for which the fair value option has been elected are recognized as a change in fair value of investments on the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
The Company has various processes and controls in place to ensure that fair value is reasonably estimated. While the Company believes its valuation methods are appropriate and consistent with other market participants, the use of different methodologies or assumptions to determine the fair value of certain financial instruments could result in a different estimate of fair value at the reporting date.
Fair Value Option
As permitted under the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”), Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 825, Financial Instruments, (“ASC 825”), the Company has elected the fair value option to account for the Helocyte and Avenue convertible notes that were issued during 2016. In accordance with ASC 825, the Company records these convertible notes at fair value with changes in fair value recorded in the Consolidated Statement of Operations. As a result of applying the fair value option, direct costs and fees related to the Helocyte and Avenue convertible notes were recognized in earnings as incurred and were not deferred.
Accounting for Warrants at Fair Value
The Company classifies as liabilities any contracts that (i) require net-cash settlement (including a requirement to net-cash settle the contract if an event occurs and if that event is outside the control of the Company) or (ii) give the counterparty a choice of net-cash settlement or settlement in shares (physical settlement or net-share settlement).
The fair value of warrants that include price protection reset provision features are deemed to be “down-round protection” and, therefore, do not meet the scope exception for treatment as a derivative under ASC 815, Derivatives and Hedging, since “down-round protection” is not an input into the calculation of the fair value of warrants and cannot be considered “indexed to the Company’s own stock” which is a requirement for the scope exception as outlined under ASC 815. The accounting treatment of derivative financial instruments requires that the Company record the warrants at their fair values as of the inception date of the agreement and at fair value as of each subsequent balance sheet date. Any change in fair value is recorded as non-operating, non-cash income or expense for each reporting period at each balance sheet date. The Company reassesses the classification of its derivative instruments at each balance sheet date. If the classification changes as a result of events during the period, the contract is reclassified as of the date of the event that caused the reclassification.
The Company assessed the classification of warrants issued, in connection with the Helocyte and Avenue convertible note financings in 2016 (the “Helocyte and Avenue Warrants”), and determined that the Helocyte and Avenue Warrants met the criteria for liability classification. Accordingly, the Company classified the Helocyte and Avenue Warrants as a liability at their fair value and adjusts the instruments to fair value at each balance sheet date until the warrants are exercised or expired. Any change in the fair value of the Helocyte and Avenue Warrants is recognized as “change in the fair value of warrant liabilities” in the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Opus Credit Facility, with Detachable Warrants
The Company accounts for the Opus Credit Facility with detachable warrants in accordance with ASC 470, Debt. The Company assessed the classification of its common stock purchase warrants as of the date of the transaction and determined that such instruments meet the criteria for equity classification. The warrants are reported on the Consolidated Balance Sheets as a component of additional paid in capital within stockholders’ equity.
The Company recorded the related issue costs and value ascribed to the warrants as a debt discount of the Opus Credit Facility. The discount is amortized utilizing the effective interest method over the term of the Opus Credit Facility. The unamortized discount, if any, upon repayment of the Opus Credit Facility will be expensed to interest expense. In accordance with ASC Subtopic 470-20, the Company determined the weighted average effective interest rate of the debt was approximately 39%. The Company has also evaluated the Opus Credit Facility and warrants in accordance with the provisions of ASC 815, Derivatives and Hedging, including consideration of embedded derivatives requiring bifurcation.
Issuance of Debt and Equity
The Company issues complex financial instruments which include both equity and debt features. The Company analyzes each instrument under ASC 480, Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity, ASC 815, Derivatives and Hedging and, ASC 470, Debt, in order to establish whether such instruments include any embedded derivatives.
Valuation of Warrants Related to NSC Note
In accordance with ASC 815, the Company classified the fair value of the warrants granted in connection with the NSC Note transferred to Avenue effective February 2015 (the “Contingently Issuable Warrants”) as a derivative liability. The Company valued these Contingently Issuable Warrants using an option pricing model and used estimates for an expected dividend yield, a risk-free interest rate, and expected volatility together with management’s estimate of the probability of issuance of the Contingently Issuable Warrants. At each reporting period, as long as the Contingently Issuable Warrants are potentially issuable and there is a potential for an insufficient number of authorized shares available to settle the Contingently Issuable Warrants, these Contingently Issuable Warrants will be revalued, and any difference from the previous valuation date will be recognized as a change in fair value of derivative liabilities in the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Recognizing Assets Acquired and Liabilities Assumed in a Business Combination
Acquired assets and assumed liabilities are recognized in a business combination on the basis of their fair values at the date of acquisition. The Company assesses fair value, which is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date, using a variety of methods including income approaches such as present value techniques or cost approaches such as the estimation of current selling prices and replacement values. Fair value of the assets acquired and liabilities assumed, including intangible assets, are measured based on the assumptions and estimations with regards to the variable factors such as the amount and timing of future cash flows for the asset or liability being measured, appropriate risk-adjusted discount rates, nonperformance risk, or other factors that market participants would consider. Upon acquisition, the Company determines the estimated economic lives of the acquired intangible assets for amortization purposes, which are based on the underlying expected cash flows of such assets.
Goodwill, Intangible Assets and Long Lived Assets
Goodwill represents the excess acquisition cost over the fair value of net tangible and intangible assets acquired. Goodwill is not amortized and is subject to annual impairment testing on October 1st or between annual tests if an event or change in circumstance occurs that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of a reporting unit below its carrying value. In testing for goodwill impairment, the Company has the option to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether the existence of events or circumstances lead to a determination that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. If, after assessing the totality of events and circumstances, the Company concludes that it is not more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, then performing the two-step impairment test is not required. If the Company concludes otherwise, it is required to perform the two-step impairment test. The goodwill impairment test is performed at the reporting unit level by comparing the estimated fair value of a reporting unit with its respective carrying value. If the estimated fair value exceeds the carrying value, goodwill at the reporting unit level is not impaired. If the estimated fair value is less than carrying value, further analysis is necessary to determine the amount of impairment, if any, by comparing the implied fair value of the reporting unit's goodwill to the carrying value of the reporting unit’s goodwill.
The fair value of reporting units is based on widely accepted valuation techniques that the Company believes market participants would use, although the valuation process requires significant judgment and often involves the use of significant estimates and assumptions. The methodologies the Company utilizes in estimating the fair value of reporting units include market valuation methods that incorporate price-to-earnings and price-to-book multiples of comparable exchange traded companies and multiples of merger and acquisitions of similar businesses. The estimates and assumptions used in determining fair value could have a significant effect on whether or not an impairment charge is recorded and the magnitude of such a charge. Adverse market or economic events could result in impairment charges in future periods.
Intangible assets deemed to have finite lives are amortized on a straight line basis over their estimated useful lives, where the useful life is the period over which the asset is expected to contribute directly, or indirectly, to its future cash flows. Intangible assets are reviewed for impairment on an interim basis when certain events or circumstances exist. For amortizable intangible assets, impairment exists when the carrying amount of the intangible asset exceeds its fair value. At least annually, the remaining useful life is evaluated.
An intangible asset with an indefinite useful life is not amortized but assessed for impairment annually, or more frequently, when events or changes in circumstances occur indicating that it is more likely than not that the indefinite-lived asset is impaired. Impairment exists when the carrying amount exceeds its fair value. In testing for impairment, the Company has the option to first perform a qualitative assessment to determine whether it is more likely than not that an impairment exists. If it is determined that it is not more likely than not that an impairment exists, a quantitative impairment test is not necessary. If the Company concludes otherwise, it is required to perform a quantitative impairment test. To the extent an impairment loss is recognized, the loss establishes the new cost basis of the asset that is amortized over the remaining useful life of that asset, if any. Subsequent reversal of impairment losses is not permitted.
Long-lived assets, primarily fixed assets, are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the assets might not be recoverable. The Company will perform a periodic assessment of assets for impairment in the absence of such information or indicators. Conditions that would necessitate an impairment assessment include a significant decline in the observable market value of an asset, a significant change in the extent or manner in which an asset is used, or a significant adverse change that would indicate that the carrying amount of an asset or group of assets is not recoverable. For long-lived assets to be held and used, the Company would recognize an impairment loss only if its carrying amount is not recoverable through its undiscounted cash flows and measures the impairment loss based on the difference between the carrying amount and estimated fair value.
Deferred Financing Costs
Financing costs incurred in connection with the note in favor of National Securities Corporation’s NSC Biotech Venture Fund I LLC (the “NSC Note”) are recorded as a reduction of principal balance due to ASU No. 2015-3 and are amortized over the appropriate expected life based on the term of the NSC Note using the effective interest rate method.
The Company recognizes revenue for the performance of services or the shipment of products when each of the following four criteria is met: (i) persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists; (ii) products are delivered or as services are rendered; (iii) the sales price is fixed or determinable; and (iv) collectability is reasonably assured.
Checkpoint is paid by TGTX, a related party, a share of the cost of the license and future milestone payments that are payable to Dana-Farber Cancer Institute pursuant to the license agreement (see Note 8). Checkpoint is also paid by TGTX for the Sponsored Research Agreement between Checkpoint and NeuPharma (see Note 8). The gross amounts of these payments are reported as revenue in the accompanying Statements of Operations. Checkpoint acts as a principal, bears credit risk and may perform part of the services required in the transactions. Consistent with ASC 605-45-15 Revenue Recognition - Principal Agent Considerations, these payments are treated as revenue to Checkpoint. The actual expenses creating the payments by TGTX are reflected as research and development expenses.
The Company follows ASC 605-25, Revenue Recognition - Multiple-Element Arrangements (“ASC 605-25”) and ASC 808, Collaborative Arrangements, if applicable, to determine the recognition of revenue under its collaborative research agreements, options to enter into collaborative research agreements and development and commercialization agreements. The terms of these agreements generally contain multiple elements, or deliverables, which may include (i) grants of licenses, or options to obtain licenses, to the Company’s intellectual property, (ii) research and development services, (iii) drug product manufacturing, and/or (iv) participation on joint research and/or joint development committees. The payments the Company may receive under these arrangements typically include one or more of the following: non-refundable, up-front license fees; funding of research and/or development efforts; amounts due upon the achievement of specified objectives; and/or royalties on future product sales.
ASC 605-25 provides guidance relating to the separability of deliverables included in an arrangement into different units of accounting and the allocation of arrangement consideration to the units of accounting. The evaluation of multiple-element arrangements requires management to make judgments about (i) the identification of deliverables, (ii) whether such deliverables are separable from the other aspects of the contractual relationship, (iii) the estimated selling price of each deliverable, and (iv) the expected period of performance for each deliverable.
To determine the units of accounting under a multiple-element arrangement, management evaluates certain separation criteria, including whether the deliverables have stand-alone value, based on the relevant facts and circumstances for each arrangement. Management then estimates the selling price for each unit of accounting and allocates the arrangement consideration to each unit utilizing the relative selling price method. The allocated consideration for each unit of accounting is recognized over the related obligation period in accordance with the applicable revenue recognition criteria.
If there are deliverables in an arrangement that are not separable from other aspects of the contractual relationship, they are treated as a combined unit of accounting, with the allocated revenue for the combined unit recognized in a manner consistent with the revenue recognition applicable to the final deliverable in the combined unit. Payments received prior to satisfying the relevant revenue recognition criteria are recorded as deferred revenue in the Consolidated Balance Sheets and recognized as revenue in the Consolidated Statements of Operations when the related revenue recognition criteria are met.
Revenue Recognition Milestone Method
The Company follows ASC 605-28, Revenue Recognition-Milestone Method to evaluate whether each milestone under a license agreement is substantive. This evaluation includes an assessment of whether (i) the consideration is commensurate with either (a) the entity’s performance to achieve the milestone, or (b) the enhancement of the value of the delivered item as a result of a specific outcome resulting from the entity’s performance to achieve the milestone, (ii) the consideration relates solely to past performance and (iii) the consideration is reasonable relative to all of the deliverables and payment terms within the arrangement. In making this assessment the Company evaluates factors such as the preclinical, clinical, regulatory, commercial and other risks that must be overcome to achieve the respective milestone, the level of effort and investment required and whether the milestone consideration is reasonable relative to all deliverables and payment terms in the arrangement in making this assessment. If a substantive milestone is achieved, the Company would recognize revenue related to the milestone in its entirety in the period in which the milestone was achieved, assuming all other revenue recognition criteria were met. Commercial milestones would be accounted for as royalties and recorded as revenue upon achievement of the milestone, assuming all other revenue recognition criteria were met.
JMC Product Revenue
JMC sells its products directly to wholesalers and specialty pharmacies. JMC recognizes product sales revenue when delivery has occurred, collectability is reasonably assured, and the price to the buyer is fixed or determinable, (in accordance with the specific contractual terms). Delivery occurs when title has transferred to the customer, and the customer has assumed the risks and rewards of ownership. Revenue from product sales is recognized net of provisions for estimated cash discounts, allowances, returns, rebates, chargebacks and distribution fees paid to certain of JMC’s wholesale customers. JMC establishes these provisions concurrently with the recognition of product sales revenue. JMC offers cash discounts for prompt payment and allowances are recorded at the time of sale.
JMC allows customers to return product within a specified period of time before and after its expiration date. Provisions for returns are estimated based on historical levels for like products from external data sources, taking into account additional available information such as historical return and exchange levels, and inventory levels in the wholesale distribution channel through its partners. Although the company has limited history with these product sales, the Company believes based on its current level of sales that it can make reasonable estimates of returns based upon external data sources. JMC reviews its methodology and adequacy of the provision for returns on a quarterly basis, adjusting for changes in assumptions, historical internal and external results and business practices, as necessary.
JMC’s co-promotion revenue for Dermasorb HC is based upon prescription volume over an established baseline.
Research and Development
Research and development costs are expensed as incurred. Advance payments for goods and services that will be used in future research and development activities are expensed when the activity has been performed or when the goods have been received rather than when the payment is made. Upfront and milestone payments due to third parties that perform research and development services on the Company’s behalf will be expensed as services are rendered or when the milestone is achieved.
Research and development costs primarily consist of personnel related expenses, including salaries, benefits, travel, and other related expenses, stock-based compensation, payments made to third parties for license and milestone costs related to in-licensed products and technology, payments made to third party contract research organizations for preclinical and clinical studies, investigative sites for clinical trials, consultants, the cost of acquiring and manufacturing clinical trial materials, and costs associated with regulatory filings, laboratory costs and other supplies.
In accordance with ASC 730-10-25-1, Research and Development, costs incurred in obtaining technology licenses are charged to research and development expense if the technology licensed has not reached commercial feasibility and has no alternative future use. Such licenses purchased by the Company require substantial completion of research and development, regulatory and marketing approval efforts in order to reach commercial feasibility and has no alternative future use. Accordingly, the total purchase price for the licenses acquired during the period was reflected as research and development - licenses acquired on the Consolidated Statements of Operations for the year ended December 31, 2016 and 2015.
The Company records accruals for contingencies and legal proceedings expected to be incurred in connection with a loss contingency when it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount can be reasonably estimated.
If a loss contingency is not probable but is reasonably possible, or is probable but cannot be estimated, the nature of the contingent liability, together with an estimate of the range of possible loss if determinable and material, would be disclosed.
The Company expenses stock-based compensation to employees over the requisite service period based on the estimated grant-date fair value of the awards and forfeiture rates. For stock-based compensation awards to non-employees, the Company remeasures the fair value of the non-employee awards at each reporting period prior to vesting and finally at the vesting date of the award. Changes in the estimated fair value of these non-employee awards are recognized as compensation expense in the period of change.
The Company estimates the fair value of stock option grants using the Black-Scholes option pricing model or 409A valuations, as applicable. The assumptions used in calculating the fair value of stock-based awards represent management’s best estimates and involve inherent uncertainties and the application of management’s judgment.
The Company records income taxes using the asset and liability method. Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax effects attributable to temporary differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective income tax bases, and operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. The Company establishes a valuation allowance if management believes it is more likely than not that the deferred tax assets will not be recovered based on an evaluation of objective verifiable evidence. For tax positions that are more likely than not of being sustained upon audit, the Company recognizes the largest amount of the benefit that is greater than 50% likely of being realized. For tax positions that are not more likely than not of being sustained upon audit, the Company does not recognize any portion of the benefit.
Non-controlling interests in consolidated entities represent the component of equity in consolidated entities held by third parties. Any change in ownership of a subsidiary while the controlling financial interest is retained is accounted for as an equity transaction between the controlling and non-controlling interests.
The Company’s comprehensive loss is equal to its net loss for all periods presented.
Certain prior period amounts may have been reclassified to conform to the current year presentation.
National's Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Principals of Consolidation
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of National and its wholly owned and majority owned subsidiaries. All significant inter-company accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
In addition, National may consolidate entities which meet the definition of a variable interest entity for which National is the primary beneficiary. The primary beneficiary is the party who has the power to direct the activities of a variable interest entity that most significantly impact the entity’s economic performance and who has an obligation to absorb losses of the entity or a right to receive benefits from the entity that could potentially be significant to the entity. As of December 31, 2016 and 2015, National did not consolidate any variable interest entities.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of these financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from these estimates.
Commission revenue represents commissions generated by National's financial advisors for their clients' purchases and sales of mutual funds, variable annuities, general securities and other financial products, most of which is paid to the advisors as commissions for initiating the transactions.
Commission revenue is generated from front-end sales commissions that occur at the point of sale, as well as trailing commissions. National recognizes front-end sales commission revenue and related clearing and other expenses on transactions introduced to its clearing brokers on a trade date basis. National also recognizes front-end sales commissions and related expenses on transactions initiated directly between the financial advisors and product sponsors upon receipt of notification from sponsors of the commission earned. Commission revenue also includes 12b-1 fees, and variable product trailing fees, collectively considered as trailing fees, which are recurring in nature. These trailing fees are earned by National based on a percentage of the current market value of clients' investment holdings in trail eligible assets. Because trail commission revenues are generally paid in arrears, management estimates commission revenues earned during each period. These estimates are based on a number of factors including investment holdings and the applicable commission rate and the amount of trail commission revenue received in prior periods. Estimates are subsequently adjusted to actual based on notification from the sponsors of trail commissions earned.
Net dealer inventory gains, which are recorded on a trade-date basis, include realized and unrealized net gains and losses resulting from the National's principal trading activities.
Investment banking revenues consist of underwriting revenues, advisory revenues and private placement fees. Underwriting revenues arise from securities offerings in which National acts as an underwriter and include management fees, selling concessions and underwriting fees, net of related syndicate expenses. Underwriting revenues are recorded at the time the underwriting is completed and the income is reasonably determined. Management estimates National’s share of the transaction-related expenses incurred by the syndicate, and recognizes revenues net of such expense. On final settlement, typically within 90 days from the trade date of the transaction, these amounts are adjusted to reflect the actual transaction-related expenses and the resulting underwriting fee.
Investment advisory fees are derived from account management and investment advisory services. These fees are determined based on a percentage of the customers assets under management, may be billed monthly or quarterly and are recognized when earned.
Interest is recorded on an accrual basis and dividends are recorded on the ex-dividend date.
Transfer fees and fees for clearing services, which are recorded on a trade date basis, are principally charged to the broker on customer security transactions.
Tax preparation and accounting fees are recognized upon completion of the services.
Securities owned and securities sold, but not yet purchased, are recorded at fair value. Authoritative accounting guidance defines fair value, establishes a framework for measuring fair value, and establishes a fair value hierarchy which prioritizes the inputs to valuation techniques. Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. A fair value measurement assumes that the transaction to sell the asset or transfer the liability occurs in the principal market for the asset or liability or, in the absence of a principal market, the most advantageous market.
Valuation techniques that are consistent with the market, income or cost approach are used to measure fair value. The fair value hierarchy ranks the quality and reliability of the information used to determine fair values. Financial assets and liabilities carried at fair value are classified and disclosed in one of the following three categories:
Deferred Clearing and Marketing Credits
Deferred clearing credit represents a clearing fee rebate from National Financial Services (“NFS”), one of National’s clearing brokers, which is being recognized pro rata as a reduction of clearing charges over the term of the clearing agreement which expires in 2022. At September 30, 2016, the deferred clearing credit amounted to approximately $0.7 million.
Deferred marketing credit represents a marketing rebate from NFS, which is being recognized pro rata as a reduction of marketing expenses over the term of the clearing agreement which expires in 2022. At September 30, 2016, the deferred marketing credit amounted to approximately $0.3 million.
Reimbursement of Expenses
The Company incurs certain costs on behalf of its financial advisors including those for insurance, professional registration, technology and information services and legal services, amongst others, which are charged back to the advisors. It is National’s policy to record the reimbursement as a reduction of the respective operating expense.
In the normal course of business, National has been named, from time to time, as a defendant in legal and regulatory proceedings. National is also involved, from time to time, in other exams, investigations and similar reviews (both formal and informal) by governmental and self-regulatory agencies regarding its businesses, certain of which may result in judgments, settlements, fines, penalties or other injunctions.
National recognizes a liability for a contingency in accrued expenses and other liabilities when it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of loss can be reasonably estimated. If the reasonable estimate of a probable loss is a range, the Company accrues the most likely amount of such loss, and if such amount is not determinable, then the Company accrues the minimum in the range as the loss accrual. The determination of the outcome and loss estimates requires significant judgment on the part of management. National believes that any other matters for which it has determined a loss to be probable and reasonably estimable are not material to the consolidated financial statements.
In many instances, it is not possible to determine whether any loss is probable or even possible or to estimate the amount of any loss or the size of any range of loss. National believes that, in the aggregate, the pending legal actions or regulatory proceedings and any other exams, investigations or similar reviews (both formal and informal) should not have a material adverse effect on the consolidated results of operations, cash flows or financial condition. In addition, National believes that any amount that could be reasonably estimated of potential loss or range of potential loss in excess of what has been provided in the consolidated financial statements is not material.
Adoption of Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In April 2015, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2015-03, Simplifying the Presentation of Debt Issuance Costs, which requires debt issuance costs to be presented in the balance sheet as a direct deduction from the carrying value of the associated debt liability, consistent with the presentation of a debt discount. ASU No. 2015-03 is effective for the interim and annual periods ending after December 15, 2015, with early adoption permitted. As of June 30, 2015, the Company adopted ASU No. 2015-03 and such adoption resulted in debt issuance costs for all periods presented to be reclassified to notes payable, long-term, net.
In August 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-15, Interest - Imputation of Interest: Presentation and Subsequent Measurement of Debt Issuance Costs Associated with Line-of-Credit Arrangements, which clarifies the treatment of debt issuance costs from line-of-credit arrangements after the adoption of ASU No. 2015-03, Interest - Imputation of Interest: Simplifying the Presentation of Debt Issuance Costs. In particular, ASU No. 2015-15 clarifies that the SEC staff would not object to an entity deferring and presenting debt issuance costs related to a line-of-credit arrangement as an asset and subsequently amortizing the deferred debt issuance costs ratably over the term of such arrangement, regardless of whether there are any outstanding borrowings on the line-of-credit arrangement. The Company adopted ASU No. 2015-15 during the second quarter of 2015, and its adoption did not have a material impact on its financial statements.
In November 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-17, Balance Sheet Classification of Deferred Taxes, which requires that deferred tax liabilities and assets be classified as noncurrent in a classified statement of financial position to simplify the presentation of deferred income taxes. The standard is effective prospectively for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2017, with early adoption permitted. As of December 31, 2016, we elected to early adopt the pronouncement on a prospective basis. Adoption of this amendment did not have an effect on the Company's financial position or results of operations, and prior periods were not retrospectively adjusted.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, which requires entities to recognize revenue in a way that depicts the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled to in exchange for those goods or services. The new guidance also requires additional disclosure about the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from customer contracts, including significant judgments and changes in judgments and assets recognized from costs incurred to obtain or fulfill a contract. The FASB has subsequently issued ASU No. 2016-10, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606) Identifying Performance Obligations and Licensing to address issues arising from implementation of the new revenue recognition standard. ASU 2014-09 and ASU 2016-10 are effective for interim and annual periods beginning January 1, 2018, and may be adopted earlier, but not before January 1, 2017. The revenue standards are required to be adopted by taking either a full retrospective or a modified retrospective approach. The Company is currently evaluating the impact that ASU 2014-09 and 2010-10 will have on its financial statements and determining the transition method, including the period of adoption that it will apply.
In January 2016, FASB issued ASU 2016-01, Financial Instruments - Overall (Subtopic 825-10): Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Liabilities. ASU No. 2016-01 requires several targeted changes including that equity investments (except those accounted for under the equity method of accounting, or those that result in consolidation of the investee) be measured at fair value with changes in fair value recognized in net income. The new guidance also changes certain disclosure requirements and other aspects of current U.S. GAAP. Amendments are to be applied as a cumulative-effect adjustment to the balance sheet as of the beginning of the fiscal year of adoption. ASU 2016-01 is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2017. Early adoption is not permitted with the exception of certain targeted provisions. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of adoption of ASU 2016-01 on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842). ASU 2016-02 requires an entity to recognize right-of-use assets and lease liabilities on its balance sheet and disclose key information about leasing arrangements. Lessees and lessors are required to disclose qualitative and quantitative information about leasing arrangements to enable a user of the financial statements to assess the amount, timing and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases. ASU 2016-02 is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2018. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently in the process of evaluating the impact of adoption of ASU 2016-02 on the consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-09, Compensation-Stock Compensation (Topic 718), Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting (“ASU 2016-09”). Under ASU 2016-09, companies will no longer record excess tax benefits and certain tax deficiencies in additional paid-in capital (“APIC”). Instead, they will record all excess tax benefits and tax deficiencies as income tax expense or benefit in the income statement and the APIC pools will be eliminated. In addition, ASU 2016-09 eliminates the requirement that excess tax benefits be realized before companies can recognize them. ASU 2016-09 also requires companies to present excess tax benefits as an operating activity on the statement of cash flows rather than as a financing activity. Furthermore, ASU 2016-09 will increase the amount an employer can withhold to cover income taxes on awards and still qualify for the exception to liability classification for shares used to satisfy the employer’s statutory income tax withholding obligation. An employer with a statutory income tax withholding obligation will now be allowed to withhold shares with a fair value up to the amount of taxes owed using the maximum statutory tax rate in the employee’s applicable jurisdiction(s). ASU 2016-09 requires a company to classify the cash paid to a tax authority when shares are withheld to satisfy its statutory income tax withholding obligation as a financing activity on the statement of cash flows. Under current GAAP, it was not specified how these cash flows should be classified. In addition, companies will now have to elect whether to account for forfeitures on share-based payments by (1) recognizing forfeitures of awards as they occur or (2) estimating the number of awards expected to be forfeited and adjusting the estimate when it is likely to change, as is currently required. These aspects of ASU 2016-09 are effective for reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2016, with early adoption permitted provided that all of the guidance is adopted in the same period. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of ASU 2016-09 on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses: Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments. ASU 2016-13 requires that expected credit losses relating to financial assets are measured on an amortized cost basis and available-for-sale debt securities be recorded through an allowance for credit losses. ASU 2016-13 limits the amount of credit losses to be recognized for available-for-sale debt securities to the amount by which carrying value exceeds fair value and also requires the reversal of previously recognized credit losses if fair value increases. The new standard will be effective on January 1, 2020. Early adoption of ASU 2016-13 will be available on January 1, 2019. The Company is currently evaluating the impact that ASU 2016-13 will have on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-15, Statement of Cash Flows - Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments, which addresses eight specific cash flow issues with the objective of reducing the existing diversity in practice in how certain cash receipts and cash payments are presented and classified in the statement of cash flows. The standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted, including adoption in an interim period. The Company is currently in the process of evaluating the impact of this new pronouncement on its consolidated statements of cash flows.
In November 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-18, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230) Restricted Cash. The new guidance requires that the reconciliation of the beginning-of-period and end-of-period amounts shown in the statement of cash flows include restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents. If restricted cash is presented separately from cash and cash equivalents on the balance sheet, companies will be required to reconcile the amounts presented on the statement of cash flows to the amounts on the balance sheet. Companies will also need to disclose information about the nature of the restrictions. The guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within those fiscal years. The Company is currently in the process of evaluating the impact of this new pronouncement on its consolidated statements of cash flows.
In January 2017, the FASB issued an ASU 2017-01, Business Combinations (Topic 805) Clarifying the Definition of a Business. The amendments in this update is to clarify the definition of a business with the objective of adding guidance to assist entities with evaluating whether transactions should be accounted for as acquisitions (or disposals) of assets or businesses. The definition of a business affects many areas of accounting including acquisitions, disposals, goodwill, and consolidation. The guidance is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within those periods. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of adopting this guidance.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-04, Intangibles - Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Accounting for Goodwill Impairment. ASU 2017-04 removes Step 2 of the goodwill impairment test, which requires a hypothetical purchase price allocation. A goodwill impairment will now be the amount by which a reporting unit’s carrying value exceeds its fair value, not to exceed the carrying amount of goodwill. This standard will be effective for the Company beginning in the first quarter of fiscal year 2021 and is required to be applied prospectively. Early adoption is permitted for interim or annual goodwill impairment tests performed on testing dates after January 1, 2017. The Company is currently evaluating the impact this standard will have on its consolidated financial statements.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef